National Policy 11-203 Process for Exemptive Relief Applications in Multiple Jurisdictions -- relief from certain specified derivatives and custodial requirements to permit mutual funds to enter into swap transactions that are cleared through a clearing corporation -- relief required because of new U.S. requirements to clear over-the-counter derivatives including swaps -- decision treats cleared swaps similar to other cleared derivatives -- National Instrument 81-102 Mutual Funds.
Applicable Legislative Provisions
National Instrument 81-102 Mutual Funds, ss. 2.7(1) and (4), 6.8(1), 19.1.
July 25, 2013
IN THE MATTER OF
THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF
IN THE MATTER OF
THE PROCESS FOR EXEMPTIVE RELIEF
APPLICATIONS IN MULTIPLE JURISDICTIONS
IN THE MATTER OF
INVESCO CANADA LTD.
The principal regulator in the Jurisdiction has received an application from the Filer for a decision under the securities legislation of the Jurisdiction of the principal regulator (the Legislation), pursuant to section 19.1 of National Instrument 81-102 Mutual Funds (NI 81-102), exempting each Existing Invesco Fund (as defined below) and all current and future mutual funds managed by the Filer that enter into Swaps (as defined below) in the future (each, a Future Invesco Fund and, together with the Existing Invesco Funds, each, an Invesco Fund and, collectively, the Invesco Funds):
(i) from the requirement in subsection 2.7(1) of NI 81-102 that a mutual fund must not purchase an option or a debt-like security or enter into a swap or a forward contract unless, at the time of the transaction, the option, debt-like security, swap or contract has a designated rating or the equivalent debt of the counterparty, or of a person or company that has fully and unconditionally guaranteed the obligations of the counterparty in respect of the option, debt-like security, swap or contract, has a designated rating;
(ii) from the limitation in subsection 2.7(4) of NI 81-102 that the mark-to-market value of the exposure of a mutual fund under its specified derivatives positions with any one counterparty other than an acceptable clearing corporation or a clearing corporation that settles transactions made on a futures exchange listed in Appendix A to NI 81-102 shall not exceed, for a period of 30 days or more, 10 percent of the net asset value of the mutual fund; and
(iii) from the requirement in subsection 6.1(1) of NI 81-102 to hold all portfolio assets of a mutual fund under the custodianship of one custodian in order to permit each Invesco Fund to deposit cash and other portfolio assets directly with a Futures Commission Merchant (as defined below) and indirectly with a Clearing Corporation (as defined below) as margin,
in each case, with respect to cleared Swaps (the Requested Relief).
Under the Process for Exemptive Relief Applications in Multiple Jurisdictions (for a passport application):
(a) the Ontario Securities Commission is the principal regulator for this application; and
(b) the Filer has provided notice that subsection 4.7(1) of Multilateral Instrument 11-102 Passport System (MI 11-102) is intended to be relied upon in each of the other provinces and territories of Canada (the Other Jurisdictions).
Terms defined in NI 81-102, National Instrument 14-101 Definitions, and MI 11-102 have the same meaning if used in this decision, unless otherwise defined. Capitalized terms used in this decision have the following meanings:
"CFTC" means the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission
"Clearing Corporation" means any of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc., ICE Clear Credit LLC, LCH.Clearnet Limited and any other clearing organization that is permitted to operate in the Jurisdiction or the Other Jurisdiction, as the case may be, where the Invesco Fund is located
"Dodd-Frank" means the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
"Existing Invesco Funds" means any of Trimark Income Growth Fund, Trimark Select Balanced Fund, Trimark Global Balanced Fund, Invesco Canadian Balanced Fund, Trimark Global Balanced Class, Trimark Diversified Income Class, Trimark Canadian Plus Dividend Class, Invesco Emerging Markets Debt Fund, Trimark Advantage Bond Fund, Trimark Canadian Bond Fund, Trimark Global High Yield Bond Fund, Trimark Floating Rate Income Fund, Trimark Diversified Yield Class, Invesco Intactive Diversified Income Portfolio, Invesco Intactive Balanced Income Portfolio, Invesco Intactive Balanced Growth Portfolio, Invesco Intactive Growth Portfolio, Invesco Intactive Maximum Growth Portfolio, Invesco Intactive Strategic Yield Portfolio, Invesco Intactive 2023 Portfolio, Invesco Intactive 2028 Portfolio, Invesco Intactive 2033 Portfolio, Invesco Intactive 2038 Portfolio, Powershares Tactical Canadian Asset Allocation Fund, Powershares Global Agriculture Class, Powershares Global Gold And Precious Metals Class, Powershares Global Water Class, Powershares Global Clean Energy Class, Powershares Golden Dragon China Class, Powershares FTSE RAFI Emerging Markets Fundamental Class, Powershares India Class, Powershares FTSE RAFI U.S. Fundamental Fund, Powershares Global Dividend Achievers Fund, Powershares FTSE RAFI Global+ Fundamental Fund, Powershares High Yield Corporate Bond Index Fund, Powershares Tactical Bond Fund, Trimark Fund, Trimark Global Fundamental Equity Fund, Trimark Global Endeavour Fund, Trimark International Companies Fund, Trimark Global Fundamental Equity Class, Trimark Global Endeavour Class, Trimark International Companies Class, Trimark Global Dividend Class, Invesco Core Canadian Balanced Class, Trimark U.S. Companies Class, Invesco Intactive Strategic Capital Yield Portfolio Class, Powershares Tactical Bond Capital Yield Class, Invesco Balanced Risk Allocation Pool, PowerShares Fundamental High Yield Corporate Bond (CAD Hedged) Index ETF, PowerShares QQQ (CAD Hedged) Index ETF, PowerShares Senior Loan (CAD Hedged) Index ETF, PowerShares S&P 500 Low Volatility (CAD Hedged) Index ETF, PowerShares FTSE RAFI US Fundamental (CAD Hedged) Index ETF, PowerShares S&P 500 High Beta (CAD Hedged) Index ETF, PowerShares Tactical Bond ETF3
"Futures Commission Merchant" means any futures commission merchant that is registered with the CFTC and is a member of a Clearing Corporation
"Invesco" means the global Invesco group of companies, including the Filer, Invesco Advisers, Inc., Invesco Asset Management Limited, Invesco Global Strategies and their affiliates
"OTC" means over-the-counter
"Swaps" means the swaps that are, or will become, subject to a clearing determination issued by the CFTC, including fixed-to-floating interest rate swaps, basis swaps, forward rate agreements in U.S. dollars, the Euro, Pounds Sterling or the Japanese Yen, overnight index swaps in U.S. dollars, the Euro and Pounds Sterling and untranched credit default swaps on certain North American indices (CDX.NA.IG and CDX.NA.HY) and European indices (iTraxx Europe, iTraxx Europe Crossover and iTraxx Europe HiVol) at various tenors
"U.S. Person" has the meaning attributed thereto by the CFTC
This decision is based on the following facts represented by the Filer:
1. The Filer is, or will be, the investment fund manager of each Invesco Fund. The Filer is registered as an investment fund manager in each of the Provinces of Ontario, Québec and Newfoundland and Labrador and as a portfolio manager and an exempt market dealer in each province of Canada. The Filer is also registered as a mutual fund dealer and commodity trading manager in the Province of Ontario. The head office of the Filer is in Toronto, Ontario.
2. The Filer is, or will be, the portfolio manager to the Invesco Funds. An affiliate of the Filer may be the sub-advisor to certain of the Invesco Funds.
3. Each Invesco Fund is, or will be, a mutual fund created under the laws of the Province of Ontario and is, or will be, subject to the provisions of NI 81-102.
4. Neither the Filer nor the Invesco Funds are, or will be, in default of securities legislation in any Jurisdiction.
5. The securities of each Invesco Fund are, or will be, qualified for distribution pursuant to a prospectus that was, or will be, prepared and filed in accordance with the securities legislation of the Jurisdictions. Accordingly, each Invesco Fund is, or will be, a reporting issuer or the equivalent in each Jurisdiction.
6. The investment objective and investment strategies of each Invesco Fund permit, or will permit, the Invesco Fund to enter into derivative transactions, including Swaps. Each of the portfolio management teams for the Existing Invesco Funds considers Swaps to be an important investment tool that is available to it to properly manage each Existing Invesco Fund's portfolio. The Existing Invesco Funds currently enter into some Swaps and the use of Swaps may increase in the future.
7. Dodd-Frank requires that certain OTC derivatives be cleared through a Futures Commission Merchant at a Clearing Corporation. Generally, where one party to a Swap is a U.S. Person and the other party to the Swap is a mutual fund, such as an Invesco Fund, that Swap must be cleared, absent an available exception, beginning on June 10, 2013. With respect to entities such as the Invesco Funds, the compliance date for the clearing of iTraxx CDS indices is July 25, 2013.
8. Currently, the Existing Invesco Funds may enter into Swaps on an OTC basis with a number of Canadian, U.S. and other international counterparties. These OTC Swaps are entered into in compliance with the derivative provisions of NI 81-102.
9. In order to benefit from both the pricing benefits and reduced trading costs that Invesco may be able to achieve through its trade execution practices for its managed investments funds and from the reduced costs associated with cleared OTC derivatives as compared to other OTC trades, the Filer wishes to have the Invesco Funds enter into cleared Swaps.
10. In the absence of the Requested Relief, Invesco will need to structure the Swaps entered into by the Invesco Funds so as to avoid the clearing requirements of the CFTC. The Filer respectfully submits that this would not be in the best interests of the Invesco Funds and their investors for a number of reasons, as set out below.
11. The Filer strongly believes that it is in the best interests of the Invesco Funds and their investors to be able to execute OTC derivatives with U.S. Persons, including U.S. swap dealers.
12. In its role as a fiduciary for the Invesco Funds, the Filer has determined that central clearing represents the best choice for the investors in the Invesco Funds to mitigate the legal, operational and back office risks faced by investors in the global swap markets.
13. Invesco currently uses the same trade execution practices for all of its managed funds, including the Invesco Funds. After June 10, 2013, these practices will include the use of cleared Swaps if such trades are executed with a U.S. swap dealer. If the Invesco Funds are unable to employ these trade execution practices, then Invesco will have to create separate trade execution practices only for the Invesco Funds. This will increase the operational risk for the Invesco Funds, as separate procedures will need to be established and followed only for the Invesco Funds. In addition, the Invesco Funds will no longer be able to enjoy the possible price benefits and reduction in trading costs that Invesco may be able to achieve through a common practice for its managed funds. In the Filer's opinion, best execution and maximum certainty can best be achieved through common trade execution practices, which, in the case of OTC derivatives, involve the execution of Swaps on a cleared basis.
14. As a member of the G20 and a participant in the September 2009 commitment of G20 nations to improve transparency and mitigate risk in derivatives markets, Canada has expressly recognized the systemic benefits that clearing OTC derivatives offers to market participants, such as the Invesco Funds. The Filer respectfully submits that the Invesco Funds should be encouraged to comply with the robust clearing requirements established by the CFTC by granting them the Requested Relief.
15. The Requested Relief is analogous to the treatment currently afforded under NI 81-102 to other types of derivatives that are cleared, such as clearing corporation options, options on futures and standardized futures. This demonstrates that, from a policy perspective, the Requested Relief is consistent with the views of the Canadian securities authorities in respect of cleared derivative trades.
16. For the reasons provided above, the Filer submits that it would not be prejudicial to the public interest to grant the Requested Relief.
The principal regulator is satisfied that the decision meets the test set out in the Legislation for the principal regulator to make the decision.
The decision of the principal regulator under the Legislation is that the Requested Relief is granted provided that, in respect of the deposit of cash and portfolio assets as margin:
(a) in Canada,
(i) the Futures Commission Merchant is a member of a SRO that is a participating member of CIPF; and
(ii) the amount of margin deposited and maintained with the Futures Commission Merchant does not, when aggregated with the amount of margin already held by the Futures Commission Merchant, exceed 10 percent of the net asset value of the Invesco Fund as at the time of deposit; and
(b) outside of Canada,
(i) the Futures Commission Merchant is a member of a Clearing Corporation and, as a result, is subject to a regulatory audit;
(ii) the Futures Commission Merchant has a net worth, determined from its most recent audited financial statements that have been made public or from other publicly available financial information, in excess of the equivalent of $50 million; and
(iii) the amount of margin deposited and maintained with the Futures Commission Merchant does not, when aggregated with the amount of margin already held by the Futures Commission Merchant, exceed 10 percent of the net asset value of the Invesco Fund as at the time of deposit.
This decision will terminate on the earlier of (i) the coming into force of any revisions to the provisions of NI 81-102 that address the clearing of OTC derivatives, and (ii) two years from the date of this decision.